Terms You Should Know

Occupancy load
Occupancy load refers to the number of people permitted in a building at one time based on the building’s floor space and function. The International Standards of Practice for Inspecting Commercial Properties (ComSOP) defines occupancy load as the number of people permitted in a building based on the means of egress.

Maximum occupancy
Maximum occupancy refers to the maximum number of people permitted in a room measured per foot for each width of the exit door. The maximum is 50 per foot of exit.

Certificate of Occupancy (CO)
Certificate of Occupancy (CO) is a document stating that a building is approved for occupancy. The building authority issues the Certificate of Occupancy.

Assembly Occupancy
According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), an assembly occupancy refers to “an occupancy (1) used for a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special amusement building, regardless of occupant load.” Examples of assembly occupancies include armories, assembly halls, auditoriums, club rooms, dance halls, bars, and exhibition halls, and more.

What Are Maximum Occupancy Load Signs?

An occupancy load must be posted on signs, which are sometimes called maximum occupancy load signs so that this information is publicly available. To exceed occupancy load or fail to post-occupancy load signs in the required places can result in fines and is a serious safety hazard.

Emergencies can require the immediate evacuation of a building, particularly in the event of a fire. The NFPA states that “fires in assembly occupancies have shown to be some of the most deadly when the proper features, systems and construction materials were not present.” For instance, in the 2003 Station Night Club fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island, which killed 100 people in just over five minutes. The fire was so lethal because the evacuation was sluggish, partly due to the fact that the actual number of people present was much higher than the building’s occupancy load.

The Takeaway for Commercial Property Inspectors

Members of the Certified Commercial Property Inspectors Association (CCPIA) can consider the following questions while they inspect load occupancy signs:

  • Is the sign present? The 2018 International Building Code (IBC) requires that signs should be present in all “assembly occupancies.” The city of Yuma, Arizona, requires their presence in assembly occupancies and defines that term as “gatherings of 50 persons or more for civic, social, or religious functions.” Other jurisdictions, such as the cities of Houston, Texas and Portland, Oregon, as well as the state of Idaho, agree that occupancy signs are required for buildings that have occupancy loads of 50 or more.
  • Has the sign been maintained?  It is the responsibility of the building’s owner to make sure that the sign is not damaged by wear or abuse.
  • Is the sign clear and legible? The Houston Fire Code requires the following:
    Signs shall [have a] minimum of 1-inch block letters and numbers on a contrasting background so as to be readily visible. Allowable smaller lettering shall be a minimum of 3/8- inch block lettering.
  • Is the sign placed in a suitable location? The 2018 IBC requires the following: Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space.
  • The NFPA requires the following: Established occupant loads should be posted prominently to ensure that not only the owner, but also the manager, operator, and occupants, are aware of the limitations. Occupant loads for multipurpose rooms should be posted for each approved use, such as tables and chairs, theater seating, dancing, and so on.
  • Additional recommendations can be drawn from the Houston Fire Code, which requires that occupancy load signs be placed in the following manner: The sign shall be located in a conspicuous location within the room, adjacent to the main exit, so as to not be obstructed by doors, curtains, poster board stands, furniture, room dividers, or similar items.  The sign shall be posted not more than 60 inches nor less than 48 inches above the floor.

Note: A posted Occupancy Load is different from the Use and Occupancy classifications established by the IBC; Use and Occupancy classifications provide design loads in pounds per square foot (PSF).

How to Calculate Maximum Occupancy Load

The occupancy load is calculated by dividing the area of a room by its prescribed unit of area per person. Units of area per person for specific buildings can be found in the chart at the end of this article. For instance, the chart dictates that dormitories require 50 square feet of floor area for every room occupant. Consequently, a dorm room that has 100 square feet of floor space will have a maximum occupancy of two people. The amount of space required per person varies based on the function of the room, which is determined by the building’s designer.

In summary, the occupancy load must be posted in many buildings on signs that are clearly visible and legible.

        Typical Maximum Floor Area Allowances Per Occupant 

Function of Space
Floor Area in Square Feet Per Occupant* 
Agricultural building
300 Gross
Aircraft hangar
500 Gross
Airport terminal


          Baggage Claim
          Baggage handling
          Waiting area


20 Gross
300 Gross

100 Gross

15 Gross
           Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc)
11 Gross
Assembly without fixed seats
            Concentrated (chairs only – not fixed)
            Standing Space
            Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)
7 Net
5 Net
15 Net
Bowling Centers, allow 5 persons for
each lane including 15 feet or runway,
and for additional areas
7 Net
Business areas
100 Gross
Courtrooms – other than fixed seating areas
40 Net
Day care
35 Net
50 Gross
            Classroom area
            Shops and other vocational room areas
20 Gross
50 Gross
Exercise rooms
50 Gross
H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas
200 Gross
Industrial areas
100 Gross
Institutional areas

             Inpatient treatment areas
             Outpatient areas
             Sleeping areas

240 Gross

100 Gross
120 Gross
Kitchen, commercial
200 Gross
            Reading room
            Study area
50 Net
100 Gross
Locker rooms
50 Gross
            Areas on the floors
Basement and grade floor areas
Storage, stock, shipping area
60 Gross
30 Gross
300 Gross
Parking garages
200 Gross
20 Gross
Skating rinks, swimming pools
               Rink and pool
50 Gross
15 Gross
Stages an platforms
15 Net
Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room
300 Gross

500 Gross


*Gross square footage is the total amount of space in a building, Net square footage only accounts for space that is suitable for occupancy (excluding such elements as major vertical penetrations and shared space).